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History

Village's History

Origin of the Village's name

  • Liatani was the previous place-name. Although not documented, it is said that the first resident of the area was a wealth land owner, named Liatis. This area is located just above the present village and was called: 'paliokantounti' in arbanetic dialect. Katouna or katount mean places of the regular camp that Arvanites work in large properties.
  • A 2nd approach maintains that the name came from the arbanetic expression: " leaita nie" (kill someone), which was used by the soldiers at the revolution of 1821.
  • The period that Hellas was under Ottoman occupation, arbanitic liapedes went out the district, the village took the name: Liatani.(Liapedes-Liapani-Liatani).
  • Mavromati is another name, that George Syrmas(90 years old) in 1967 insist on, due to plethora of olive trees, around the village.
    Source: Folklore Collection of Athens University. (Eftihea Syrma 1967).
    The name: Mavromati is mentioned in the book of Colonel William Martin Leake: Travels in Northern Greece, during his visit to the region in 1806.
    Also the prefect of Thebes, N. Karoris at his report: 'Ekthesis incident, raising the month of April during the 1830' on the conflict with the Turks to lands on 19 June 1833, records the name Liatani or Mavromati village of Livadia . (Liatani was under the jurisdiction of the province Livadias).
    Source: Unpublished Documents relating to the final deliberation of the land in eastern Greece. Elias Papathanassopoulos.

 

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Area in B.C. Era

The dominant city in the region in ancient times considered the Tanagra around which developed TETRAPOLIS.
A network of four settlements: Fares, Mykalissos, Arma and Elέonas.
Many people consider that the region Elέonas is at Thebes, and specifically in the Municipal Department of Eleonas. This is under question, because if Eleonas was produced by the word salina(Greek: έλος), as many believe today, will take a rough breathing. Pausanias, who passed from the area on his way to Tanagra and Halkida ought to refer to Eleona as he did with Tefmissos, Glisantas, Arma and Mykalissos, as he did in case for all of the cities was on the road followed.
This leads to the non-existence of Eleόna but Elέona, who was in the south of Tanagra, between Liatani(Ayios Thomas) and Kledi, where the ruins are met in Kastri position.
Plutarch speaks for Elέona: Whence in Boeotia, around Elέonas, river took the name: Skamandros? And he says after answering the same: By the time, Diimachos, Eleonos son, partner of Hercules, participated in the Troy campaigns.
Diimachos killed in battle. With his death, his lover Glafkia, Skamandros daughter, who had become pregnant from the relationship with Diimachos come in danger. Hercules took the ship, where Glafkia birth a son, in order to protect the race of Diimachos. When he arrived in Boeotia delivered her in Eleonas. The child named Skamandros and became king of the country.
Since then, the adjacent river was renamed by Inachos in Skamandros, while the nearby stream was named after Glafkia and the nearby fountain named Akidoussa from his wife. (Ploutarchos. Causes Greek, Stephanos 301).
Skamandros seems to be the stream between Liatani (St. Thomas) and Kledi, which results in Asopos water down from the surrounding mountains (Bithsiakouli) while Glafkia the stream near the castle and the neighboring Akidoussa source.

 

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12th century AD

John Kaloktenis from Konstadinoupolis(Istanbul) elected to the metropolitan throne of Thebes in the 12th century. He served his people wisely. Apart from the projects launched in the city of Thebes, his own works are several bridges of Asopos as what is known as the bridge of the Metropolitan. Another one was the bridge at the plain of ancient Tanagra and across from the chapel of St. Thomas. Many people consider that this bridge dates back to Ottoman rule and particularly in 1750.
The three-arched bridge was covered in the 80s with a new one in place. Part of this bridge is shown in the photo below at 1951.

Πατήστε για μεγένθυση

 

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Liatani in Ottoman Occupation Era

As all Greek villages, Liatani fought against occupiers on the side of Captain Athanasios Skourtaniotes. He was born in 1793 at Skourta village (Dervenohoria). Dervenohoria enjoyed little autonomy and retained a small body of men combatants led by Skourtaniotis. He managed many defeats against the Ottomans of the area. His real name was Gatsis, but known as Captain Thanases.
Many soldiers from Liatani fought at his side:
Ioannis Kiokes or Kiokios or Kiokias. Officer from Liatani fought on the side of Skourtnaniotes. He honoured by medal of cross and generosity from our country. He participated also, at the battle of Arahova, under captain George Karaiskakis. He died in Liatani. He was granted the rank of 2nd lieutenant by Royal Decree of 20 May 1838, as a reward for the struggle of independence and his offer during the plague in Poros island. He is mentioned at soldiers of Viotia reports, by Panayiotis Karlis from Davlia, that he was a Gujarat Commander under supervision of Vasilis Mavrovouniotes. Also Kotsios Barbas, from Schimatari, reports that John Kiokias had the rank of Commander of Phalanx (Chlembotsari, March 24, 1865).

Ioannis Koubitsas officer of Skourtaniotis from Liatani. He was renowned for wisdom and bravery. He served under the command of Gardikiotis at Jamalas Papakostas's insurgency in 1848, at Palaiokastro of Fthiotitha. He was killed in a clash between government troops and rebels. He is not listed in the reords of 1821 fighters.

Gatsis Demetrios. Brother of Captain Skourtaniotes. He died childless in Liatani, having lost one eye during a fight.

Athanasiou Spyros. 1821 agonist.(Registration Number:9256). He was involved from the begining of the race in Chiliarchia(body of 1000 men) of Kostas Chormovas, Pentakosiarchia(body of 500 men) of Lioulios Demos. He was awarded the 'Award of Iron Struggle' for services to the race. His death left behind his wife, Panagiota and a son, George. The war finding committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Bougesis Anagnostis. 1821 agonist. (Registration Number:8927 - Number of New Records:3186). He fought on the side of Athanasios Skourtaniotes, George Skourtaniotes and Vasos Mavrovouniotis. A document of the Military Secretariat (1.11.1831) and the Mayor of Tanagra (11.6.1865) states that he held the rank of Eikosipentarchos Brigades(a 25 men body leader). It also said that had conferred the 'Iron Medal for his struggles' diploma, from King Otto. The struggle over the war finding committee placed him in the 1st line NCO. His children names were: Yiannos, Tassis and Constantine.

Giolekas Theodoros or Gostekos or Yiosthekos. 1821 agonist. (Registration Number:9008). He served the country throughout the fight. He is registered in the records of Basil Mavrovouniotis Chiliarchia(body of 1000 men) and Triantafyllos Tzouras pentakosiarchia(body of 500 men). These records were used by his wife Asimo and his children John, 35, and Theodore, 30 years to claim compensation. The war finding committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Ioannou Antonios.(Registration Number:3198). He served the country throughout the fight of 1821. He joined Basilis Mavrovouniotis Chiliarchia(body of 1000 men), Ioannis Klimakas Pentakosiarchia(body of 500 men) and Stavros Demou ekatontarchia(body of 100 men). He reperts that he was loged at the above Chiliarchia. The war finding committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Katerinis Theodoros.(Registration Number:2878). He served the country from the beggining of the fight at many battles. On the side of Nikos Kriezotis at Aliveri. Under the orders of Dimitris Sipoulias at Haithari(Piraeus). By Ioannis Klimakas at Kamatero and Steveniko. By Vasilis Mavrovounitis at Martino. and at Crete on the side of Hatzimichalis. He was awarded the 'Iron Cross of war'. These was certified by Ioannis Klimakas, Hatzichristos and Spiros Millios. The war finding committee placed him in the rank of soldiers.

Kokosis Mitros.(Registration Number:3202). He served the country from the beggining of the fight at many battles. With him fought his father and brother who were killed, while the father at the battle of Thebes Mavromati with Thanasis Skourtaniotis, and his brother of the Crete campaign. Last served on the Chiliarchia of Mavrovouniotis Vassos, Pentakosiarchia Ioanni Klimaka, Ekantotarchia Mitrou Stamou of Thebes. After the dissolution of chiliarchion served in the order of George Skourtaniotis. The war finding committee placed him in the rank of soldiers.

Kotzanis Spyros.(Registration Number:8993). He appeared to be 64 years, on the certificate of 10 May 1865 of Ioannis Klimakas and Anastasios Koustas. He fought from the start of the race on the side of Athanasius Skourtanioti, Minios Katzikogiannis, Athanasios Zarifis, and Yannis Gouras taking part in battles of Thebes, Aniforiti, Dervenosalesi, Marathon. Since late 1821 he fought in Vrysakia, Aliveri Diakofti and eastern Greece (Levadia, Atalanta, Livanates, Ampliani, Jerusalem Monastery, Pente Oria), with N. Kriezotis. Then under Kriezotis in all the battles of Attica. (Eleusis, Haidari, Piraeus, Athens Siege), and the campaign of Trikeri. Then he joined in Chiliarchia of Vassos Mavrovouniotis, pentakosiarchia of Ioannis Klimakas, ekantotarchia of George Pagonas, as pentarchos(chief of 5 men body) in battles of Domvous, Levadia (Martino, Lithadas, Ai Yiannis Hasias).He was wounded in his left hand. The committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Loukas Dimos.(Registration Number:1557). He fought from the start of the race with Diakos in Livadia and Alamana, by Odyseas Androutsos in Livadia and Hani of Gravia, by Nakos Panourgias in Pente Oria, by Karaiskakis in Arachova, by Klimakas in Ayios Ioannis, where was wounded in his left hand. He fought on the side of Christos Chatzipetros and Spiros Milios at Messolongi, and wounded at his left leg at Keratsini. Then he placed in the Chiliarchia of Hatzipetros, pentakosiarchia of Spiros Milios, band of Spokas Souliotis as Corporal. These are certified by Hatzipetros, Spiros Milios, Ioannis Klimakas. The committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers. He argues that took part in the battle of Hani, but does not specify if he was locked in or fought out. He may also took place at the 2nd siege of Messolonghi from his testimony that he fought under the orders of Spiros Milios.

Makris Demetrios.(Registration Number:1727). He fought throughout the years of struggle in the Chiliarchia of Mavrovouniotis Vassos, pentakosiarchia of George Skourtaniotis, ekantotarchia of M.Birbilis. He was awarded the 'Iron Medal' with diploma by King Otto, on April 25, 1839. He died in 1865, according to his wife's claim for a pension. The committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Bougesas Stamatis. He mentioned by Tsevas that fought at the beginning of the race under Minios Katsikogiannis in Aniforitis. Stamatis Vougesis certainly was an important factor in the east Dervenochoria. This is proved by a letter sent to him by Kriezotis Vassos and Mavrovouniotis, which is as follows:
Stamati Bougesa.
Seeing this letter, gather as much partners as you can and come and bring us a hundred of lambs and cheese from the village. If you are asking about the Turks, we have destroied them. We killed a 'binpasi' and 6 'bouloukpasades'(pasha). The meet place will be knwon to you by the soldiers. Here we have and a Bulgarian of the Turks who confess us useful informations.
June 25, 1826. Gen. Nicholas Vassos Kriezotis.



Nikolaou Ioannis.(Registration Number:1575). He fought under Thanases Skourtaniotis in Mesovouni and Aniforiti, under Kalergis in Piraeus, under Tzompoulis in Eleusis. Placed in Chiliarchia of Christodoulos Hatzipetrou and later under the orders of Ioannis Stratos, where he took part in the battles of Lepanto(Nafpaktos) and Messolongi. These are certified by Christodoulos Hatzipetros, Spiros Milios and Yiannis Klimakas. He received the 'Iron Medal Struggle' for the service for his country. The committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Stefos Nikolaos.(Registration Number:9013). In a certificate from the Mayor Tanagra (19 June 1865) appeared to have died. He lived with his wife, Chrisi and his children Chris, 30 years old, George 20 years old and Vasiliki,16 years old. He served his country militarily around the time of the race under Dionysios Evmorfopoulos, George Skourtaniotis and George Bairaktaris. The committee placed him in the class of soldiers.

Sterpis Panousis.(Registration Number:9015). At the request of his wife Maro and his children: Sotiris,26, Basil,23, Theodore,20 and Kalomira,18 (20 June 1865), he served the country throughout the period the race. He served in chiliarchia of Efmorfopoulos Dionysios,pentakosiarchia of George Skourtaniotis. The committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

Chrisohoou Ioannis.(Registration Number:1740). He served the country throughout the period of struggle in various chieftains. He joined chiliarchia Mavrovouniotis Vassos, pentakosiarchia of Ioannis Klimakas. His widow name was Paraskevi and his son Anthony. The committee placed him in the ranks of soldiers.

source: Thebes and Levadia. Choraete and Choreke at 1821, by George B. Loukas Fanopoulos

πατηστε για μεγενθυση
The paper comes from a Georgios Skourtaniotis's letter to Koletis at 1832 and records the food demands of his soldiers. The catalog includes the following soldiers from Liatani:

  • Spyros Athanasiou
  • Anagnostis Bougesis
  • Mitros Kokosis
  • Ioannis nikolaou









Source: Academy of Athens

 

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1821. -July. Pasha Omer Vryonis from Eboea came in Liatani with 3000 men to help the Turks in Athens, where they had run out of food. Liatani was 9 hours away from Athens. 700 Athenians were resisting, but finally went backwards. On 20 July Omer Vryonis conquers Athens.
Source: History of Athens. Dionysios Sourmelis, 1853. 2nd edition.
Michalis Economou in the files of Greek History says: Vryonis passed byAulis and Tanagra to support the Turks besieged the Acropolis. On June 17th overnights in Liatani and attacks the body of Vasilis Chatzimeletis, which had arrived in the village to ward off the invasion of Athens.
The same issue mentioned Capt. John E. Nouchakes by moving the date to July 29, 1821.
Source: Greek Chorographia, geography, history, population statistics and distances, 1901. 3rd edition. John Nouchakes.

1832. -6(18 former calendae) December. Residents of Ayios Thomas, following Thebes's county residents, undersigned the landowners complain to the competent authorities and the entire enlightened world to an unacceptable action by the Ottoman inhabitants of Euboea to sell out national land to foreign investors.
............
complainment paper
............
names of Liatani's residents 1
............
names of Liatani's residents 2

Source: General Archives, Historical file of Mr. Athanasios Kyriakos, former secretary of Kleidi's Community..

1835. -8 April. Formed by royal decree the Municipality of Tanagra at Thebes Province, having capital the village Liatais. The decree was not published in the Government Gazette. Ranked in third class with a population of 1287 inhabitants, and the initial establishment:( Liatais: 324, bratsi: 122, Schimatari: 280, Inia: 61, Kakosalesi: 327, Bouga: 39, Koloteti: 129). Source: 1.History of Greek municipalities 1833 - 1912, Eleftherios C. Skiadas. 2.GAK.Oth arch.Yp.Es.F113, Ad N.23801.

1903. -29 March. Female school is established in Liatani.P ublished by royal decree GG: 164/1903

1912. -31 August. Establishement of community, located in the settlement Liatani at prefecture of Attica and Boeotia.
Gov. 262A - 31/08/1912.

1914. -4th October. Strong earthquake which was felt throughout the province, removes most of the houses in the village. Community president: Aristides Papaconstantinou and the police officer: Andreas Aggelakopoulos accused by the villagers for discriminatory allocation of state aid.

1921. -9th October. Corporals Stephanos John Papageorgiou and Theodorou S.I. included in the names of the piers of the XIII division in battles of Sagarious, announced the press office of the Greek government.

1929. -30 April. Alteration of the toponymic Liatani in hitherto known: Ayios Thomas. CG :164/1929

1941. -19 February. Corporal Paul Spyridon Georgiadis killed in the battle of Pestanis. He belonged to the 34th Infantry Regiment. Born in Ayios Thomas Thebes in 1918.

1941. -7 March. Soldier Papadedes Christou Evangelos killed in Metzgkorani Tepeleniou . He belonged to the 67th Infantry Regiment. Born in Ayios Thomas Thebes in 1913.

1941. -20 May. Soldier Kokosis Michael Dimitris killed in the Battle of Crete, Skine Chania. He belonged to the 7th center of prisoners. Born in Ayios Thomas Thebes in 1906.

1942. -11th of February. Aris Velouchiotis leaves in Liatani part of his soldiers under the commands of Tzavelas. Velouchitis with Orestes, Pelopidas, Leondas and Gardikiotis drive to the Fili Monastery(Xasia). There they dressed with priest clothes(rasa). Having their weapons hidden beneath the rasa, go down to Athens (Hadjipanayiotou, 1982).

1942. -16th of July. WO John Georgiadis killed on 16 July 1942, arranged in service (mission bombing), near the airport ETKOY Egypt by aircraft Hurricane.

1943. -26th of July. The community belongs to the prefecture of Viotia, after separation of the prefecture Attikovoiotias.
GG: 223A/26-7-1943.

1944. -14 February. Doctor Constantine D. Papadedes, 42 years old is slaughtered by anarchists.

1944. -20 July. Villagers: Aekaterinis Ioannis, Vougesis Demetrios, Gikas Athanasios and Hronis Aristides are arrested by Germans and held at Avlona's garrison headquarters.

1944. -26th July. The village burnt by Germans

1945. -5th December. The settlement Liatani is considered municipal department of Tanagra's Municipality with the
law 25/5-12-1945

1963. -11th May. Tragic plant explosion(ELVIEMEK factory) kills 4 attendants from the village: Kava Evangelia A. 17, Kotsoliou P. Catherine 21, Kotsoliou Theofani P. 16, Sterpi Constantinna 18.

1997. -4th December. The community is repealed and comsolidated with Dilesi, Kleidi and Oinofyta in one Municipality.

2010. -7th June. The village as a local department of Oinofyta's municipality, joined the newly established municipality of Tanagra by the Law: 3852/2010 (New Architecture of Government Administration and Decentralisation - Kallikrates Program)
Gov. 87A/7-6-2010.



 

-------Old Municiplaity of Tanagra-----1833-1912-----------------------------------------

Πατήστε για μεγένθυσηThe name of the municipality resulting from the Boeotian town on the left bank of the Asopos. The name of a city is the Asopos daughter of Aeolus, or else, Tanagra. According to Wiliam Leake Tanagra called the city Troy, which Homer says, and hired the aeolic 'Xana' as a proof of its aeolic origin.
Emblem(seal): The original seal of the municipality was circular without emblem. The banner depicted established by Royal Decree of 11 October 1870 (Gazette 43/sel 340): "... the seal of the municipality of Tanagra εν τω μέσω μεν γυναίκα ευειδή ταινία την κεφαλήν αναδουμένην, γύρωθεν δε τας λέξεις δήμος Ταναγραίων... Η βασίλισσα Κορίνη της αρχαίας Τανάγρας, κειμένη ακριβώς εις την θέσιν ην ήδη κείται το εθνικόν βόσκημα Τανάγρα ή Γκριμάδα...,
Formation-Creation-Evolution:: The city of Tanagra was formed by Royal Decree of 8 (20th with the old calendar) April 1835, which was not published in the Official Gazette, as a municipality in the province of Thebes. Placed in C grade with a population of 1287 inhabitants located in Tanagra (Liatais). The citizen called Tanagraios.
Home Recommendation: Liatais: 324, Bratsi: 122, Schimatari: 280, Oenia: 61, Kakosalesi: 327, Bouga: 39, Koloteti: 129.
Subsequent attachments: Oropos Municipality: (Oropos: 153, Sykamenon: 102, Milesi: 75), part of Parasopia Municipality: (Chlembotsari: 191, Moustafades: 118, Kakoniochori or Kakonischiri: 37, Kavasala: 5, Krora: 14, ΜTstsari Monastery and watermill, Mandani, Rampentosa), and settlements:: Staniates, Skourta, Kleindeti, Liatani, Bratsi, Dervenosalesi, Dilesi, Mazaraki.
By Royal Decree of July 31 (August 12) 1836 (GG 48), "merge of municipalities in the province of Thebes, Tanagra and municipalities of Oropos united in one municipality, with the name Tanagra and location Tanagra(Liatais).
The Royal Decree of November 24 (6 December) 1836, which was not published in the Official Gazette, won the villages of the merged municipality Oropos, as well as villages: Bouga, Kakosalesi (Salesi) from Tanagra's municipality and consolidated them at Perea's municipality.
By Royal Decree of November 1 (November 13) 1841 (Official Gazette 25/1842), "merger of municipalities in the province of Thebes", part of the Parasopaion municipality merged to Tanagra municipality. With the new recommendation, the City remained in third grade with a population of 1455 inhabitants located in Chlimpotsari or Chlempotsari. In the same Royal Decree, part of the Tanagra's municipality consisting of villages Schimatari, Staniatais, Dilesi, Skourta and Mazaraki split and merged in the Avlida's municipality.
By Royal Decree of 7 (19) October 1842 (GG 24), returned to Tanagra's municipality the villages merged in Avlida's municipality in 1841.

Municipality Population
         Year   Population
         1848 - 2000
         1849 - 2011
         1850 - 2036
         1851 - 2034
         1852 - 2042
         1853 - 2049
         1854 - 2091
         1855 - 2036
         1856 - 2022
         1861 - 2336
         1870 - 2867
         1879 - 3423
         1889 - 3951
         1896 - 4859
         1907 - 6148


Hourly distances from towns and villages population during year1841.


Athens Levadeia Thebes Chlembotsari population
Chlembotsari   12   12.15   3.30
  651
Bratsi   13   12   3.30   1.15   418
Dervenosalesi    11   15   6   3   550
Dilesi   13   13   7   4   47
Kavasila   10   16   7   4   125
ΚKakoniochori   10   15   6   3.30   225
Kleideti   11   14   5   1.30   258
Krora   19   16   7   4   227
Liatani   11   14.30   5.30   2   855
Moustafades   13   11   3   1   318
Rambentosa   11   13   4   1 20 families
Skourta   10   16   7   3   298
Staniates   11.30   15   6   3   172
Schimatari   13   13   4   2   714



Πηγή: 1.Historical Diagram of Greek Municipalities 1833 - 1912, Eleftherios G. Skiadas
         2.Seal Collection ELIA, τ. Α., pg.36
         3.ΓΑΚ. Οθ. αρχ. Υπ.Εσ.Φ.113,Ad.Ν.23801
         4.ΓΑΚ. Οθ. αρχ. Υπ.Εσ.Φ.104,Ad.Ν.17794
         5.Hellenic Chorography, Geograpghy, History, Population statistics and Distances Ioannes Nouchakes,1901. edition 3rd.

 

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 The 2003 research from Leiden and Ljubljana universities under the supervision of Prof. Dr. John Bintliff and his collaborators: E. Farinetti, P. Sarri, K. Sbonias, B. Slapsak, V. Stissi, A. Vionis records: By the 8th century AD the Eastern Roman Empire, based at Constantinople, had reconquered the Greek countryside from the Slave, including Boeotia, and this ushered in a period of steady growth of rural population and at the major regional towns (such as Thebes in Central Boeotia). We can match this picture from Byzantine sources with the results of our rural survey around Tanagra, a whole series of small villages or hamlets was established at regular intervals of every few kilometres, datable by characteristic Middle Byzantine ceramics found on their surface to foundations in the 10th-11th centuries AD.

 These continue to flourish into the next period of Crusader feudal conquest of our region (13th-14th century). The advantageous location of ancient Tanagra City explains the fact that one such village is founded only a kilometre from the ancient town, by the rural church still standing from that village of Agios Thomas. The church is Middle Byzantine of 12th century AD date, whilst the associated village which we discovered from widespread surface pottery in the fields left of the church, was occupied from the 11th-14th centuries AD (dating by A. Vionis, Leiden). All the Byzantine villages disappear in the 14th century, and this can be related to the return of the Bubonic Plague and to the devastating wars between the Franks, the Byzantines and the Turks which left most of the southern Mainland of Greece cleared of population, which either retreated to upland villages in each region or was carried off into slavery. The first village tax records for Boeotia, in 1466, shortly after the Ottoman Turkish conquest of Greece, show vividly this absence of Greek settlements in the Lowlands and a small number of enlarged refuge villages in the hills of Boeotia. Eastern Boeotia with the large plains and plateaux around Tanagra is especially empty.

 To recolonise this landscape between 1400 and 1500 AD the final Frankish Dukes of Athens and then the Ottoman rulers invited large numbers of new settlers, from Albania, with the specific direction to locate new villages near abandoned ones from the previous settlement system. This is the origin of our modern villages at Tanagra (former Bratsi) and at Kleidi (Kleideti). Adter some 100 years of Ottoman rule, the peaceful conditions of the Pax Ottomanic saw population rise for both Greek and Albanian villages, as well as new village foundations. The Ottoman village tax record for 1570 shows this well.

 Modern Ayios Thomas has a more complex history; it is rather recent, and was founded by villagers moving out of the mountains between Boeotia and Attica at the end of the Turkish era and after the War of Greek Independence, in the early 19th century AD. Before Thomas though a village existed at its own site, called Kelmendi or Liatani, and further south a small linked pair of hamlets called Kinos or Ginosati, now deserted. Our Project directs itself naturally to deserted villages where no overlay of modern constructions obscures houseplans and pottery finds of the pre-Modern era, and in 2003 we were able to plan the latest generation of stone longhouses at Ginosati and collect ceramics from the surface which fit the general 15th-18th century records for the village. It is important that we take the history and archaeology of traditional villages very seriously, since the roots of these farmers who work our landscape are quite different and in themselves very interesting and hitherto not the object of archaeological investigation. Based on our many years at deserted villages in the earlier Boeotia Project we can identify even domestic and coarse wares for periods of one to two centuries within the 1400 years of post-Roman life in Boeotia, whilst the combination of the Ottoman village records and later accounts from Western Travellers and 19th century post-Independence census and map records allows us to follow villages around the landscape over the long-term.


Boeotia at 1570